10C's: C0
     [See lectures, class web pages, HWs & solutions, and TB1, Appendixes.]
C0: To Begin With
    * A rational conscious mind;
    * Laws of the universe can be precisely described by mathematical equations, and the mind is gifted with the ability to discover and make use of them.
    * Matter: rest mass;
    * Light: speed c;
        ** Value of c = 3.0 x 10^8 m/s;
    * Three space dimensions plus one time dimension
        ** Their precise math description: 3+1, i.e. 3 space and 1 time;
    * Numbers: real (and imaginary, which, unfortunately, can not used in this course; This is really a great handicap. Quantum physics since the 1920's has revealed that imaginary number does have physical reality. High schools need to teach it when sine and cosine are taught.)
    * Symbols: Use symbols or letters to represent physical quantities.
    * Mathematical operations on numbers and symbols : addition, subtraction, multiplication, & division.
    * Simple Euclidean geometry: Pythagoran thm, 2 pi, etc.;
    * Units: SI
        ** Basic units for length, mass, and time: MKS and their internationally established definitions.
        ** Derived units: speed, area, volume, density in mass, energy, momentum, intensity in energy, force, etc.
    * Two significant figures
    * Scientific notation (power of 10 notation) and scientific scale (log _10  scale)
    * The observable universe radius = (the age of the universe) x (speed of light); In other words, it is the (largest possible) radius of the universe that is in principle observable through the use of light (the messenger of the universe).
    * Four forces in the universe (as established by experiments & observations): strong, electromagnetism, weak, and gravity , in decending order of their strength.
    * Four laws of thermodynamics:
        ** 0th law: A universal quantity called temperature can be defined for all physical systems.
        ** 1st law: Energy is conserved.
        ** 2nd law: Entropy (a quantity that characterizes the usage of degrees of freedom or disorder) does not decrease.
        ** 3rd law: There is a lowest temperature called the absolute zero, defined as 0 K (Kelvin). 0 C is 273 K.
    * Forms of energy:
        ** Rest-mass and kinetic energy (the exact form, and the approximate form).
        ** Radiation (electromagnetic or light) energy
        ** Gravitational potential energy
        ** Electromagnetic potential energy