**Phy10B-W05**

10C's: C0 ** **

[See lectures, class web pages, HWs &
solutions, and TB1, Appendixes.]

**C0: To Begin With**

* A rational conscious mind;

* Laws of the universe can be precisely described
by mathematical equations, and the mind is gifted with the ability to
discover and make use of them.

** * Matter: rest mass;**

** * Light: speed c;**

** Value of c = 3.0 x
10^8 m/s;

** * Three space dimensions plus one time
dimension**

** Their precise math
description: 3+1, i.e. 3 space and 1 time;

** * Numbers: real** (and imaginary, which,
unfortunately, can not used in this course; This is really a great handicap.
Quantum physics since the 1920's has revealed that imaginary number does
have physical reality. High schools need to teach it when sine and cosine
are taught.)

** * Symbols: **Use symbols or letters to
represent physical quantities.

** * Mathematical operations on numbers and
symbols** : addition, subtraction, multiplication, & division.

** * Simple Euclidean geometry:** Pythagoran
thm, 2 pi, etc.;

** * Units: SI **

** Basic units for length,
mass, and time: MKS and their internationally established definitions.

** Derived units: speed,
area, volume, density in mass, energy, momentum, intensity in energy,
force, etc.

** * Two significant figures**

** * Scientific notation **(power of 10
notation) and scientific scale (log _10 scale)

** * The observable universe radius = (the
age of the universe) x (speed of light)**; In other words, it is the
(largest possible) radius of the universe that is in principle observable
through the use of light (the messenger of the universe).

* **Four forces** in the universe (as established
by experiments & observations): **strong, electromagnetism, weak,
and gravity** , in **decending** order of their strength.

* **Four laws** **of thermodynamics**:

** 0th law: A universal quantity
called temperature can be defined for all physical systems.

** 1st law: Energy is conserved.

** 2nd law: Entropy (a quantity
that characterizes the usage of degrees of freedom or disorder) does not
decrease.

** 3rd law: There is a lowest temperature
called the absolute zero, defined as 0 K (Kelvin). 0 C is 273 K.

* **Forms of energy**:

** Rest-mass and kinetic energy
(the exact form, and the approximate form).

** Radiation (electromagnetic or
light) energy

** Gravitational potential energy

** Electromagnetic potential energy